Spatial Navigation and Visual Accessibility

1. Spatial Navigation

Freedman, A., Achtemeier, J., Baek, Y. & Legge, G.E. (2019). Gaze behavior during navigation with reduced acuity. Experimental Eye Research, 183, 20-28. (article) (PMC) (PDF)

Rafian, P. & Legge, G.E. (2017). Remote sighted assistants for indoor location sensing of visually impaired pedestrians. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 14(3), 19. (article) (PDF)

Legge, G.E., Downey, C., Giudice, N.A. & Tjan, B.S. (2016). Indoor Airport Wayfinding for Blind and Visually Impaired Travelers. Report to the Federal Aviation Administration, No. DOT/FAA/TC-TN16/54. (PDF)

Legge, G.E., Granquist, C., Baek, Y. & Gage, R. (2016). Indoor spatial updating with impaired vision. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 57(15), 6757-6765. (article) (PDF)

Legge, G.E., Gage, R., Baek, Y., & Bochsler, T.M. (2016). Indoor spatial updating with reduced visual information. PLoS ONE, 11(3): e0150708. (article) (PDF)

Legge, G.E., Beckmann, P.J., Tjan, B.S., Havey, G., Kramer, K., Rolkosky, D., Gage, R., Chen, M., Puchakayala, S. & Rangarajan, A. (2013). Indoor navigation by people with visual impairment using a digital sign system. PLoS ONE, 8(10): e76783. (article) (PDF)

Kalia, A.A., Schrater, P.R. & Legge, G.E. (2013). Combining path integration and remembered landmarks when navigating without vision. PLoS ONE, 8(9): E72170. (article) (PDF)

Legge, G.E. (2013). Driving with central visual-field loss. JAMA Ophthalmology, 131(3), 393-395. (article) (PDF)

Giudice, N.A., Bakdash, J.,  Legge, G.E. & Roy, R. (2010). Spatial learning and navigation using a virtual verbal display. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 7(1): 3. (article) (PDF)

Kalia, A.A., Legge, G.E., Roy ,R. & Ogale, A. (2010). Assessment of indoor route finding technology for visually-impaired people. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 104(3), 135-147. (article) (PMC) (PDF)

Giudice, N.A. & Legge, G.E. (2008). Blind navigation and the role of technology.  In A. Helal, M. Mokhtari & B. Abdulrazak (Eds.), The engineering handbook of smart technology for aging, disability and independence (pp. 479-500). John Wiley & Sons. (PDF)

Kalia, A.A., Legge, G.E. & Giudice, N.A. (2008). Learning building layouts with non-geometric visual information: The effects of visual impairment and age. Perception, 37(11), 1677-1699. (article) (PMC) (PDF)

Giudice, N.A., Bakdash, J., & Legge, G.E. (2007). Wayfinding with words: Spatial learning and navigation using dynamically updated verbal descriptions. Psychological Research, 71, 347-358. (article) (PDF)

Kallie, C.S., Schrater, P.R., & Legge, G.E. (2007). Variability in stepping direction explains the veering behavior of blind walkers. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33(1), 183-200. (article) (PMC) (PDF)

Stankiewicz, B.J., Legge, G.E., Mansfield , J.S., & Schlicht, E.J. (2006). Lost in virtual space: Studies in human and ideal spatial navigation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32(3), 688-704. (article) (PDF)

Mason, S.J., Legge, G.E. & Kallie, C.S. (2005). Variability in the length and frequency of steps of sighted and visually impaired walkers. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 99(12), 741-754. (article) (PMC) (PDF)

Tjan, B.S., Beckmann, P.J., Roy, R., Giudice, N., & Legge, G.E. (2005). Digital sign system for indoor wayfinding for the visually impaired. 2005 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'05) - Workshops. IEEE. (article) (PDF)

2. Designing Visually Accessible Spaces

Creem-Regehr, S.H., Barhorst-Cates, E.M., Tarampi, M.R., Rand, K. & Legge, G.E. (2021). How can basic research on spatial cognition enhance the visual accessibility of architecture for people with low vision? Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 6:3. (article)

Freedman, A., Achtemeier, J., Baek, Y. & Legge, G.E. (2019). Gaze behavior during navigation with reduced acuity. Experimental Eye Research,183, 20-28. (article) (PMC) (PDF)

Thompson, W.B., Legge, G.E., Kersten, D.J., Shakespeare, R.A. & Lei, Q. (2017). Simulating visibility under reduced acuity and contrast sensitivity. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 34(4), 583-593. (article) (PDF)

Legge, G.E. (2014). Prentice Medal Lecture 2013: Visual accessibility: A challenge for low-vision research. Optometry & Vision Science, 91(7), 696-706. (article) (PDF)

Bochsler, T.M., Legge, G.E., Gage, R. & Kallie C.S. (2013). Recognition of ramps and steps by people with low vision. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 54(1), 288-294. (article) (PDF)

Kallie, C.S., Legge, G.E. & Yu. D. (2012). Identification and detection of simple 3D objects with severely blurred vision. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 53(13), 7997-8005. (article) (PDF)

Bochsler, T.M., Legge, G.E., Kallie, C.S. & Gage, R. (2012). Seeing steps and ramps with simulated low acuity: Impact of texture and locomotion. Optometry & Vision Science, 89(9), E1299-1307. (article) (PDF)

Legge, G.E., Yu, D., Kallie, C.S., Bochsler, T.M. & Gage, R. (2010). Visual accessibility of ramps and steps. Journal of Vision, 10(11), 8. (article) (PDF)

3. 3D Depth and Direction

Jobling, J.T., Mansfield, J.S., Legge, G.E., & Menge, M.H. (1997). Motion parallax: Effects of blur, contrast, and field size in normal and low vision. Perception, 26(12), 1529-1538. (article) (PDF)

Mansfield, J.S. & Legge, G.E. (1997). Binocular visual direction, the cyclopean eye, and vergence: Reply to Banks, van Ee and Backus. Vision Research, 37(12), 1610-1613. (PDF)

Mansfield, J.S. & Legge, G.E. (1996). The binocular computation of visual direction. Vision Research, 36(1), 27-41. (article) (PDF)

McKee, S.P., Bravo, M.J., Smallman, H.S., & Legge, G.E. (1995). The "uniqueness constraint" and binocular masking. Perception , 24(1), 49-65. (article) (PDF)

Zimmerman, G.L., Legge, G.E., & Cavanagh, P. (1995). Pictorial depth cues: A new slant. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 12(1), 17-26. (article) (PDF)

McKee, S.P., Bravo, M.J., Taylor, D.G., & Legge, G.E. (1994). Stereo matching precedes dichoptic masking. Vision Research, 34(8), 1047-1060. (article) (PDF)

Legge, G.E. & Gu, Y. (1989). Stereopsis and contrast. Vision Research, 29(8), 989-1004. (article) (PDF)