Reading: Normal and Low Vision

1. Recent Articles on Reading (2003 and after)

Calabrese, A., Cheong, A.M.Y., Cheung, S.-H., He, Y., Kwon, M. Mansfield, J.S., Subramanian, A., Yu, D. & Legge, G.E. (2016). Baseline MNREAD measures of normally sighted subjects from childhood to old age. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 57, 3836-43.(article) (PDF version)

Calabrese, A., Owsley, C., McGwin, G. & Legge, G.E. (2016). Development of a reading accessibility Index using the MNREAD acuity chart. JAMA Ophthalmology, 134(4), 398-405.(article) (PDF version)

Yu, D., Jiang, Y., Legge, G.E. & He, S. (2015). Locating the cortical bottleneck for slow reading in peripheral vision. Journal of Vision, 15(11), 3. (article) (PDF version)

Legge, G.E. (2014). Prentice Medal Lecture: Visual accessibility: A challenge for low-vision research. Optometry & Vision Science, 91, 696-706. (article) (PDF version)

Yu, D., Legge, G.E., Wagoner, G. & Chung, S.T.L. (2014). Sensory factors limiting horizontal and vertical visual span for letter recognition. Journal of Vision, 14 (6), article 3. (article) (PDF version)

Subramanian, A., Legge, G.E., Wagoner, G.H. & Yu D. (2014). Learning to read vertical text in peripheral vision. Optometry and Vision Science, 91(9), 1097-1105. (article) (PDF version)

Wang, H., He, X., & Legge, G.E. (2014). Effect of pattern complexity on the visual span for Chinese and alphabet characters. Journal of Vision, 14(8): 6, 1-17. (article) (PDF version)

He, Y., Legge, G.E. & Yu, D. (2013). Sensory and cognitive influences on the training-related improvement of reading speed in peripheral vision. Journal of Vision, 13(7): 14, 1-14. (article) (PDF version)

Pelli, D.G., Chung, S.T.L., & Legge, G.E. (2012). Theories of reading should predict reading speed. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35(5), 297–298. (article) (PDF version)

Kwon, M. & Legge, G.E. (2012). Spatial-frequency requirements for reading revisited. Vision Research, 62, 139-147. (article) (PDF version)

Legge, G.E. & Bigelow, C.A. (2011). Does size matter for reading? A review of findings from vision science and typography. Journal of Vision 11(5):8, 1-22. doi: 10.1167/11.5.8 (article) (PDF version)

Lee, H.-W., Kwon, M., Gefroh, J. G. & Legge, G.E. (2010). Training improves reading speed in peripheral vision: is it due to attention? Journal of Vision, 10(6): 18, 1-15. (article) (PDF version)

Yu, D., Cheung, S.-H., Legge, G.E. & Chung, S.T.L. (2010). Reading speed in the peripheral vision of older adults: Does it benefit from perceptual learning? Vision Research 50(9), 860-869.(article) (PDF version)

Yu, D., Legge, G.E., Park, H. Gage, E., & Chung, S.T.L. (2010). Development of a training protocol to improve reading performance in peripheral vision. Vision Research50, 36-45. (article) (PDF version)

Legge, G.E., Tjan, B.S., Chung, S.T.L. & Bigelow C. (2010). Commentary on Watt and Dakin’s “The utility of image descriptions in the initial stages of vision”: Do image descriptions underlie word recognition in reading? British Journal of Psychology, 101, 33-39. (article) (PDF version)

Yu, D., Park, H., Gerold, D. & Legge, G.E. (2010). Comparing reading speed for horizontal and vertical English text. Journal of Vision, 10(2):21, 1-17(article) (PDF version)

Yu, D., Cheung, S.-H., Legge, G.E. & Chung, S.T.L. (2010). Reading speed in the peripheral vision of older adults: Does it benefit from perceptual learning? Vision Research 50, 860-869. DOI 10.1016/j.visres.2010.02.006 (article) (PDF version)

Legge, G.E., Cheung, S.-H., Chung, S.T.L., Lee, H.-W., Gefroh, J.G., & Kwon, M.Y. (2008). Training peripheral vision to read. In J.J. Rieser, D.H. Ashmead, F. F. Ebner, & A.L. Corn (Eds.) Blindness and brain plasticity in navigation and object perception. (pp. 209-226) New York, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Taylor and Francis Group. (Book)

Cheung, S.-H., Kallie, C.S., Legge, G.E. & Cheong, A.M.Y. (2008). Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling of MNREAD data. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 49, 828-835. (article) (PDF version)

Cheong, A.M.Y., Legge, G.E., Lawrence, M., Cheung, S-H., & Ruff, M. (2008). Relationship between visual span and reading performance in age-related macular degeneration. Vision Research, 48, 577-588.(article) (PDF version)

Cheong., A.M.Y., Legge. G.E., Lawrence, M., Cheung, S-H., & Ruff, M. (2007) Relation between slow visual processing and reading speed in people with macular degeneration. Vision Research, 47, 2943-2955. (article) (PDF version)

Crossland, M.D, Legge, G.E. & Dakin, S.C. Development and validation of an automated sentence generator for the assessment of reading speed: A methodological study. Behavioral and Brain Functions4:14. (article) (PDF version)

Kwon, M-Y., Legge, G.E. & Dubbels, B. (2007). Developmental changes in the visual span for reading. Vision Research47, 2889-2900 (article) (PDF version)

Legge, G.E., Cheung, S-H, Yu, D., Chung, S., Lee, H-W, Owens, D. (2007). The case for the visual span as a sensory bottleneck in reading. Journal of Vision, 7(2):9, 1-15. (article) (PDF version)

Yu, D., Cheung, S-H., Legge, G.E., Chung, S. (2007). Effect of letter spacing on visual span and reading speed. Journal of Vision , 7(2):2, 1-10. (article) (PDF version)

Sass ,S.M., Legge, G.E. & Lee, H.W. (2006). Low-vision reading speed: Influences of linguistic inference and aging. Optometry & Vision Science, 83, 166-177. (article) (PDF version)

Chung, S.T.L., Legge, G.E., & Cheung, S.H. (2004). Letter recognition and reading speed in peripheral vision benefit from perceptual learning. Vision Research, 44, 695-709. (article) (PDF version)

Legge, G.E. & Cheung, S.H. (2004). Psychophysics of reading: Implications for displaying text. Society for Information Display 2004 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers. Vol. XXXV, Book 2 . Society for Information Display, 1359-1361. (Library Link)

Lee, H.W., Legge, G.E., & Ortiz, A. (2003). Is word recognition different in central and peripheral vision? Vision Research , 43, 2837-2846. (article) (PDF version)

2. Psychophysics of Reading: Normal and Low Vision

I.

Legge, G.E., Pelli, D.G., Rubin, G.S., & Schleske, M.M. (1985). Psychophysics of reading. I. Normal vision. Vision Research, 25, 239-252.(article) 
II. Legge, G.E., Rubin, G.S., Pelli, D.G., & Schleske, M.M. (1985). Psychophysics of reading. II. Low vision. Vision Research, 25, 253-266. (article) 
III. Pelli, D.G., Legge, G.E., & Schleske, M.M. (1985). Psychophysics of reading. III. A fiberscope low-vision reading aid. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 26, 751-763. (article)
IV. Legge, G.E. & Rubin, G.S. (1986). Psychophysics of reading. IV. Wavelength effects in normal and low vision. Journal of the Optical Society of America, A3, 40-51. (article) 
V. Legge, G.E., Rubin, G.S., & Luebker, A. (1987). Psychophysics of reading. V. The role of contrast in normal vision. Vision Research, 27, 1165-1171. (article)
VI. Rubin, G.S. & Legge, G.E. (1989). Psychophysics of reading. VI. The role of contrast in low vision. Vision Research, 29, 79-91. (article)
VII. Legge, G.E., Ross, J.A., Maxwell, K.T., & Luebker, A. (1989). Psychophysics of reading. VII. Comprehension in normal and low vision. Clinical Vision Sciences, 4, 51-60. (article)
VIII. Legge, G.E., Ross, J.A., Luebker, A., & LaMay, J.M. (1989). Psychophysics of reading. VIII. The Minnesota low-vision reading test. Optometry and Vision Science , 66, 843-853. (article)
IX. Parish, D.H. & Legge, G.E. Psychophysics of reading. IX. The stability of eye position in normal and low vision. Unpublished Manuscript 8/89. (article)
X. Akutsu, H., Legge, G.E., Ross, J.A., & Schuebel, K. (1991). Psychophysics of reading. X. Effects of age related changes in vision. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 46, 325-331. (article)
XI. Legge, G.E., Parish, D.H., Luebker, A., & Wurm, L.H. (1990). Psychophysics of reading. XI. Comparing luminance and color contrast. Journal of the Optical Society of America, A7, 2002-2010. (article)
XII. Legge, G.E., Ross, J.A., Isenberg, L.M., & LaMay, J.M. (1992). Psychophysics of reading. XII. Clinical predictors of low-vision reading speed. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 33, 677-687. (article)
XIII. Ahn, S.J. & Legge, G.E. (1995). Psychophysics of reading. XIII. Predictors of magnifier-aided reading speed in low vision. Vision Research, 35, 1931-1938. (article)
XIV. Beckmann, P.J. & Legge, G.E. (1996). Psychophysics of reading. XIV. The page-navigation problem in using magnifiers. Vision Research, 36, 3723-3733. (article)
XV. Mansfield, J.S., Legge, G.E.,& Bane, M.C. (1996). Psychophysics of reading. XV. Font effects in normal and low vision. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 37, 1492-1501.  (article)
XVI. Legge, G.E., Ahn, S.J., Klitz, T.S. & Luebker, A. (1997). Psychophysics of reading. XVI. The visual span in normal and low vision. Vision Research, 37, 1999-2010. (article)
XVII. Harland, S., Legge, G.E., & Luebker, A. (1998). Psychophysics of reading. XVII. Low- vision performance with four types of electronically magnified text. Optometry & Vision Science, 75, 183-190. (article)
XVIII. Chung, S.T.L., Mansfield, J.S., & Legge, G.E. (1998). Psychophysics of reading. XVIII. The effect of print size on reading speed in normal peripheral vision. Vision Research, 38, 2949-2962. (article)
XIX. Bruggeman, H. & Legge, G.E. (2002). Psychophysics of reading. XIX. Hypertext search and retrieval with low vision. Proceedings of the IEEE, 90, 94-103. (article)
XX. Legge, G.E., Mansfield, J.S., & Chung, S.T.L. (2001). Psychophysics of reading. XX. Linking letter recognition to reading speed in central and peripheral vision. Vision Research, 41, 725-734. (article)

3. Other Articles on Reading and Vision

Legge, G.E. & Chung, S.T.L. (in press). Low Vision and Plasticity: Implications for Rehabilitation. Annual Review of Vision Science, 2016. 2:10.1–10.23. (article)

Ortiz A., Jobling, J.T., Chung, S.T.L., & Legge, G.E. (1999). Reading with a head-mounted video magnifier. Optometry & Vision Science, 76, 755-763. (article) (PDF version)

Ahn, S.J., Legge, G.E., & Luebker, A. (1995). Printed cards for measuring low-vision reading speed. Vision Research, 35, 1939-1944. (article) (PDF version)

Legge, G.E. (1993). The role of contrast in reading: Normal and low vision. In R.M. Shapley & D. M.-K. Lam (Eds.) Contrast Sensitivity , 269-287. (article)

Legge, G.E. (1991). Glenn A. Fry Award Lecture 1990: Three perspectives on low-vision reading. Optometry & Vision Science, 68, 763-769. (article) (PDF version)

Legge G.E., Rubin, G.S., Pelli, D.G., Schleske, M.M., Luebker, A., & Ross, J. (1988). Understanding low-vision reading. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 82 54-59. (article)

Legge, G.E., Rubin, G.S., & Schleske, M.M. (1986). Contrast-polarity effects in low-vision reading. In G.C. Woo (Ed.) Low Vision: Principles and Applications, 288-307.

Legge, G.E., Pelli, D.G., & Schleske, M.M. (1981). Some properties of matrix-display reading. In Second International Visual Psychophysics and Medical Imaging Conference, July 2-3 1981, Brussels, Belgium. Edited by C.C. Jaffe, IEEE Press, New York, 119-123.

4. Mr. Chips: An Ideal Observer Model of Reading

Click here to see Mr. Chips in action!

Legge G.E., Hooven, T.A., Klitz, T.S., Mansfield, J.S., & Tjan, B.S. (2002). Mr. Chips 2002: New insights from an ideal-observer model of reading. Vision Research, 42, 2219-2234. (article) (PDF version)

Klitz T.S., Legge, G.E., & Tjan, B.S. (2000). Saccade planning in reading with central scotomas: Comparison of human and ideal performance. A. Kennedy, R. Radach, D. Heller & J. Pynte (Eds.) Reading as a Perceptual Process . Elsevier.

Legge G.E., Klitz, T.S. & Tjan, B.S. (1997). Mr. Chips: An ideal-observer model of reading. Psychological Review , 104, 524-553. (article)

5. Dyslexia

O'Brien, B.A., Mansfield, J.S., & Legge, G.E. (2005). The effect of print size on reading speed in dyslexia. Journal of Research in Reading, 28, 332-349. (article) (PDF version)

O'Brien, B.A., Mansfield, J.S., & Legge, G.E. (2001). Comment on letter to the Editor: Is dyslexia caused by a visual deficit? Vision Research, 41, 3071. (article)

O'Brien, B.A., Mansfield, J.S., & Legge, G.E. (2000). The effect of contrast on reading speed in dyslexia. Vision Research, 40, 1921-1935. (article) (PDF version)

6. Letter Recognition

He, Y., Scholz, J.M., Gage, R., Kallie, C.S., Liu, T. & Legge. G.E. (2015). Comparing the visual spans for faces and letters. Journal of Vision, 15 (8). (article) (PDF version)

Yu, D., Legge, G.E., Wagoner, G. & Chung, S.T.L. (2014). Sensory factors limiting horizontal and vertical visual span for letter recognition. Journal of Vision, 14 (6), article 3. (article) (PDF version)

Kwon, M. & Legge, G.E. (2013). Higher contrast requirements for recognizing low-pass filtered letters. Journal of Vision, 13(1), 1-15. (article) (PDF version)

Kwon, M. & Legge, G.E. (2011). Spatial-frequency cutoff requirements for pattern recognition in central and peripheral vision. Vision Research, 51(18), 1995-2007. (article) (PDF version)

Chung, S.T.L. & Legge, G.E. (2009). Precision of position signals for letters. Vision Research, 49, 1948-1960. (article) (PDF version)

Beckmann, P. J., & Legge, G. E. (2002). Preneural limitations on letter identification in central and peripheral vision. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, Optics, image science, and vision, 19, 2349-2362. (article)

Chung S.T.L., Legge, G.E., & Tjan, B.S. (2002). Spatial-frequency characteristics of letter identification in central and peripheral vision. Vision Research, 42, 2137-2152. (article) (PDF version)

Chung S.T.L., Levi, D.M., Legge, G.E., & Tjan, B.S. (2002). Spatial-frequency properties of letter identification in amblyopia. Vision Research, 42, 1571-1581.(article) (PDF version)

Chung S.T.L., Levi, D.M., & Legge, G.E. (2001). Spatial-frequency and contrast properties of crowding. Vision Research 41, 1833-1850. (article) (PDF version)